Fire dampers, smoke dampers and ceiling radiation dampers

DAMPER. See "Ceiling radiation damper," "Combination fire/smoke damper," "Fire damper" and "Smoke damper."

COMBINATION FIRE/SMOKE DAMPER. A listed device installed in ducts and air transfer openings designed to close automatically upon the detection of heat and resist the passage of flame and smoke. The device is installed to operate automatically, controlled by a smoke detection system, and where required, is capable of being positioned from a fire command center.

FIRE DAMPER. A listed device installed in ducts and air transfer openings designed to close automatically upon detection of heat and resist the passage of flame. Fire dampers are classified for use in either static systems that will automatically shut down in the event of a fire, or in dynamic systems that continue to operate during a fire. A dynamic fire damper is tested and rated for closure under elevated temperature airflow.

SMOKE DAMPER. A listed device installed in ducts and air transfer openings designed to resist the passage of smoke. The device is installed to operate automatically, controlled by a smoke detection system, and where required, is capable of being positioned from a fire command center.

CEILING RADIATION DAMPER. A listed device installed in a ceiling membrane of a fire-resistance-rated floor/ceiling or roof/ceiling assembly to limit automatically the radiative heat transfer through an air inlet/outlet opening.


When specified in the code for fire walls, smoke barriers, smoke compartments, horizontal assemblies, fire partitions, fire barriers smoke partitions.
CEILING RADIATION DAMPER. Designed to protect air openings that occur in fire-resistance-rated roof/ceiling or floor/ceiling assemblies, ceiling radiation dampers are listed devices that automatically limit the radiative heat transfer from a room or space into the cavity above the ceiling. The damper, in conjunction with the fire-resistive ceiling membrane, protects the structural system within the floor/ceiling or roof/ceiling assembly from failure that is due to excessive heat.

FIRE DAMPER. Regulated by test standard UL 555, fire dampers are devices located in ducts and air-transfer openings to restrict the passage of flames. Fire dampers close automatically upon the detection of heat, maintaining the integrity of the fire-resistance-rated assembly that is penetrated. The actuation of fire dampers creates some restriction to air flow from migrating throughout the duct system or through transfer openings, although not to the level of that required for a smoke damper.

SMOKE DAMPER. Test standard UL 555S states that leakage-rated dampers (smoke dampers in the terminology of the IBC) are intended to restrict the spread of smoke in heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems that are designed to automatically shut down in the event of a fire, or to control the movement of smoke within a building when the HVAC system is operational in engineered smoke-control systems. The IBC simply identifies smoke dampers as listed devices designed to resist the passage of air and smoke through ducts and air-transfer openings. Smoke dampers must operate automatically unless manual control is desired from a remote command station.

The dampers definitions are found in Section 702 of the 2006 IBC.

Ceiling Radiation, Fire and Smoke Dampers requirements can be found in Section 716 (specifically 716.5 "Where required").
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